Notitia Dignitatum

Limitanei Legions and their Dispositions

This page created 6 July 2015, and last modified: 11 October 2015 (Pelagios links changed to ancient location names rather than modern)

By the end of the 4th century, legions that were not classified legiones palatinae or legiones comitatenses were termed limitanei, a term that is found in the sources for the first time in 363, and which translates to something like "borderers" (limitanei legions attached more-or-less temporarily to a field army were termed legiones pseudocomitatenses). A related term, ripenses ("riparian", as in 'pertaining to a river' - seemingly the Danube in particular), first occurs in 325, and signified troops that had a higher status than normal auxiliary alae and cohortes, and were, at first, akin to comitatenses, but which, by 400, and thus by time of the Notitia, were contrasted with them, and seem to have been more akin to limitanei.

The following table gives the stations of the limitanei legions as noted in the Notitia Dignitatum compilation (the reference numbers refer to Ingo Maier's numbering scheme). Only locations coupled to a unit entitled Legio are given, so locations coupled to milites that are merely presumably legionary, due to e.g. being commanded by prefects as opposed to tribunes, are omitted (but see the table following after).

Disclaimer: Remember, some of what comes below is speculation. Hopefully informed speculation, but speculation nonetheless. Comments welcome! (lukeuedasarson "at"

Entry Legion Reference Notitia station Modern station location
1 Legio V Macedonica 52.2 Memfi (i.e. Memphis) near Mit Rahina, Egypt
2 Legio XIII Gemina 52.3 Babilona (i.e. Babylona) Coptic Cairo, Egypt
3 Legio III Diocletiana Thebaidos 52.6 Andro (i.e. Andros) unknown, but somewhere in Lower (i.e. northern) Egypt
4 Legio II Traiana 52.7 Parembole Sawl, in Faiyum, Egypt
5 Legio II Isauria 54.2 none (Isauria; see note) Konya region, Turkey
6 Legio III Isauria 54.3 none (Isauria; see note) Konya region, Turkey
7 (Eq. prom. indig.) Legio III Diocletiana 56/7.10 Ambos (i.e. Ombos) probably Kom Ombo, Aswan, Egypt
8 Legio II Flavia Constantia Thebaeorum 56/7.11 Cusas (i.e. Cusae) Al Qusiyyah, Asyut, Egypt
9 Legio III Diocletiana 56/7.12 Praesentia opposite Kom Ombo ?, Egypt
10 Legio II Traiana 56/7.13 Appollonos superioris (i.e. Apollonopolis Magna) Edfu, Aswan , Egypt
11 Legio I Valentiniana 56/7.16 Copto (i.e. Coptos) Qift, Qena , Egypt
12 Legio I Maximiana 56/7.16 Filas (i.e. Philae) Jazirat Filah, Aswan , Egypt
13 Legio III Diocletiana 56/7.17 Thebas (i.e. Thebes) Luxor, Luxor , Egypt
14 Legio II Valentiniana 56/7.18 Hermunthi (i.e. Hermonthis) Armant, Luxor , Egypt
15 Legio X Fretensis 59.13 Ailae (i.e. Aila) Aqaba, Jordan
16 Legio III Cyrenaica 61.9 Bostra Busra, Daraa, Syria
17 Legio IV Martia 61.10 Betthoro (i.e. Betthorus) El-Lejjun, Karak, Jordan
18 Legio I Illyricum 63.14 Palmira (i.e. Palmyra) Tadmur, Homs, Syria
19 Legio IV Gallica 63.15 Danaba (i.e. Danova ?) Mehin near Sadad ?, Homs, Syria
20 Legio IV Scythica 65.9 Oresa Ain Tayibe ?, Homs, Syria
21 Legio XVI Flavia Firma 65.14 Sura (i.e. Soura) Between Alhora and Al-Raqqah, Al-Raqqah, Syria
22 Legio IV Parthica 67.11 Circesio (i.e. Circesiumh) Al-Busayrah, Deir ez-Zor, Syria
23 Legio I Parthica Nisibena 69.10 Constantina (i.e. Constantia) Viransehir, Sanliurfa, Turkey
24 Legio II Parthica 69.11 Cephae (i.e. Kephas) Hasankeyf, Batman, Turkey
25 Legio XV Apollinaris 71.4 Satala Sadak, Gumushane, Turkey
26 Legio XII Fulmin[at]a 71.5 Melitina (i.e. Melitene) Battalgazi, Malatya, Turkey
27 Legio I Pontica 71.7 Trapezunta (i.e. Trapezus) Trabzon, Trabzon, Turkey
28 Legio II Herculia 74.19 Trosmis (i.e. Troesmis) Turcoaia, Tulcea, Romania
29 Legio II Herculia 74.20 Axiupoli (i.e. Axiopolis) Cernavoda, Constanta, Romania
30 Legio II Herculia 74.21 Iprosmis unknown; somewhere in Romania
31 Legio I Iovia 74.22 Novioduro (i.e. Noviodunum) Isaccea, Tulcea, Romania
32 Legio I Iovia 74.23 Novioduro (i.e. Noviodunum) Isaccea, Tulcea, Romania
33 Legio I Iovia 74.24 Accisso (i.e. Aegyssus) Tulcea, Tulcea, Romania
34 Legiones I Iovia & II Herculia 74.25 Inplateypegiis Caraorman, Tulcea, Romania
35 Legio I Italica 76.21 Novas (i.e. Novae) Svishtov, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
36 Legio I Italica 76.22 Novas (i.e. Novae) Svishtov, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
37 Legio I Italica 76.23 Sexagintaprista (i.e. Sexaginta Prista) Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria
38 Legio XI Claudia 76.24 Durostoro (i.e. Durostorum) Silistra, Silistra, Bulgaria
39 Legio XI Claudia 76.25 Transmariscae (i.e. Transmarisca) Tutrakan, Silistra, Bulgaria
40 Legio XI Claudia 76.26 Transmariscae (i.e. Transmarisca) Tutrakan, Silistra, Bulgaria
41 Legio IV Flavia 78.20 Singiduno (i.e. Singidunum) Belgrade, Serbia
42 Legio VII Claudia 78.21 Viminiaco (i.e. Viminacium) Stari Kostolac, Branicevo, Serbia
43 Legio VII Claudia 78.22 Cuppis (i.e. Cuppae) Golubac, Branicevo, Serbia
44 Legio V Macedonica 80.20 Variniana (i.e. Valeriana) Either Selanovtsi or Dolni-Vadin, Vratsa, Bulgaria
45 Legio V Macedonica 80.21 Cebro (i.e. Cebrus) Gorni Tsibar, Montana, Bulgaria
46 Legio V Macedonica 80.22 Oesco (i.e. Oescus) Gigen, Pleven, Bulgaria
47 Legio XIII Gemina 80.23 Aegeta (i.e. Egeta Brza Palanka, Serbia
48 Legio XIII Gemina 80.24 Transdrobeta (i.e. Pontes) Kostol, Serbia
49 Legio XIII Gemina 80.25 Burgo Novo unknown, presumably somewhere on (or under!) the Danube
50 Legio XIII Gemina 80.26 Zernis (i.e. Dierna) Orsova, Mehedinti, Romania
51 Legio XIII Gemina 80.27 Ratiaria Near Archar, Vidin, Bulgaria
52 Legio V Macedonica 80.28 Sucidava Celei, near Corabia, Olt, Romania
53 Legio II Augusta 132.8 [Rutupis] (i.e. Rutupiae) Richborough, Kent, England
54 Legio V Iovia 141.24 Bononiae (i.e. Bononia) Vidin, Bulgaria
55 Legio VI Herculea 141.25 Aureo Monte Kamenec ?, Croatia
56 Legio V Iovia 141.26 Burgenas unknown; presumably on the Danube
57 Legio VI Herculea 141.27 Teutiborgio (i.e. Teutoburgium) Dalj, Croatia
58 Legiones V Iovia & VI Herculea 141.28 Onagrino (i.e. Onagrinum<) Begec, Serbia
59 Legio I Adiutrix 143.29 Bregtione (i.e. Brigetio) Komarom, Szony, Hungary
60 Legio II Adiutrix 143.30 Aliscae (i.e. Alisca Ocseny, near Szekszard, Tolna, Hungary
61 Legio II Adiutrix 143.31 Florentiae (i.e. Florentia) Dunaszekcso, Baranya, Hungary
62 Legio II Adiutrix 143.32 Acinco (i.e. Aquincum) Obuda, Budapest, Hungary
63 Legio II Adiutrix 143.33 contra Tautantum unknown, but presumably on the left bank of the Danube in Hungary
64 [Legio] II Adiutrix 143.34 Cirpi Dunabogdany, Pest, Hungary
65 [Legio] II Adiutrix 143.35 Lussonio (i.e. Lussonium) Dunakomlod, Tolna, Hungary
66 Legio (unknown) 143.43 Transiacinco (i.e. Transaquincum) Rakospatak, Budapest, Hungary
67 Legio X [Gemina] 145.13 Vindomarae (i.e. Vindobona) Vienna, Austria
68 Legio XIV Gemina 145.14 Carnunto (i.e. Carnuntum) near Petronell-Carnuntum and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg, Austria
69 Legiones X & XIV Gemina 145.15 Arrabonae (i.e. Arrabona) Gyor, Hungary
70 [Legio] II Italica 145.25 Ioviaco (i.e. Ioviacum) Schloegen ?, Haibach, Austria
71 Legio [II] Italica 145.26 Lentiae (i.e. Lentia) Linz, Austria
72 Legio II [Italica] 145.27 Lauriaco (i.e. Lauriacum) Lorch, Austria
73 Legio I Noricum 145.28 Adiuvense (i.e. Ad Iuvense) Wallsee, Austria
74 Legio I Noricum 145.29 Favianae (i.e. Faviana) Mautern an der Donau, Austria
75 Legio III Italica 147.5 Castra Regina Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany
76 Legio III Italica 147.6 Submuntorio (i.e. Summuntorium) Burghoefe, Mertingen, Bavaria, Germany
77 Legio III Italica 147.7 Vimania Cassiliacum to Cambidano (i.e. Vemania to Cambodunumn) Isny-Bettmauer to Kempten, Bavaria, Germany
78 Legio III Italica 147.9 Foetibus (i.e. Foetes) Fuessen, Bavaria, Germany
79 Legio III Italica 147.10 Teriolis Zirl, Tyrol, Austria
80 Legio VI [Victrix] 154.2 [Sextae] (i.e. Eburacum) York, England
81 Legio VII Gemina 156/8.44 Legione (i.e.Legio) Leon, Spain

Note that the two Isaurian legions, being under the command of the Comes per Isauriam might not be considered to be limitanei units, depending on how "limitanei" is defined. At 3.14, under the listing of the provinces under the Praetorian Prefect of the Orient, it is noted that the province of Isauria has a Military Count (comes rei militaris; this was bracketed by Seeck for deletion in his edition: OR. II.14). The Comes per Isauriam would thus appear to combine combine both military and civil powers, as do two other officers in the Notitia: the Dux Arabiae and the Dux et praeses provinciae Mauritaniae et Caesariensis. The Count's section in the Notitia may been revised during the working lifetime of the compilation, since at 54.9 he is referred to instead as being a Dux, not a Comes. That the two Isaurians legions are not given station locations would argue against them being limitanei units, in the same way those under e.g. the Comes Britanniae, and unlike those under e.g. the Comes limitis Aegypti.

The following table gives the stations of milites that can be presumed to be legionary, and those of the numeri that can be presumed to be legionary for the same reasons.

Entry Name / description Reference Notitia station Modern station location
1 Milites navium Amnicarum 76.27 no location given, but possibly opposite Transmarisca Oltenita, Calarasi, Romania
2 Milites contra Margum in Castria Augustoflavianensibus 78.23 opposite Margum Zupanja, Croatia
3 Milites exploratores 78.24 Novis (i.e. Novae) Cezava, Serbia
4 Milites exploratores 78.25 Taliata Veliki Gradac, Glina, Croatia
5 Milites Vincentienses 78.26 Laedemata (i.e. Lederata) Ram, Branicivo, Serbia
6 Milites exploratores 78.27 Zmirnae (i.e. Zmirna) unknown
7 Milites exploratores 80.18 Transdiernis (i.e. Transdierna) Tekija, Bor, Serbia
8 Milites fortenses 139.13 in castris Leptitanis (i.e. Leptitani/Leptis Magna) near Khoms, Libya
9 Milites munifices 139.14 in castris Madensibus near Sebkha Tauorgha ?, Libya
10 Milites Calcarienses 141.29 Sirmi (i.e. Sirmium) near Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
11 Milites Ursarienses 147.8 Guntiae (i.e. Guntia) near Guenzburg, Bavaria, Germany
12 Milites Carronentes 151.3 Blabia Hennebont/Port-Louis ?, Brittany, France
13 Milites Mauri Beneti 151.4 Benetis (i.e. Veneti) Vannes, Brittany, France
14 Milites Mauri Oismiaci 151.5 Osismis (i.e. Osismii) near Brest, Brittany, France
15 Milites superventores 151.6 Mannatias (i.e. Namnetum) Nantes, Pays de la Loire, France
16 Milites Martenses 151.7 Aleto (i.e. Aletum) Saint-Servan, Brittany, France
17 Milites I Flaviae 151.8 Constantia Coutances, Normandy, France
18 Milites Ursarienses 151.9 Rotomago (i.e. Rotomagus) Rouen, Normandy, France
19 Milites Dalmatae 151.10 Abrincatis (i.e. Abrincas) Avranches, Normandy, France
20 Milites Grannonenses 151.11 Grannono unknown, presumably somewhere in Normandy
21 Numerus barcariorum Tigrisiensium 154.6 Arbeia South Shields, County Durham, England
22 Numerus Nerviorum Dictensium 154.7 Dicti (i.e. Dictum) unknown, possibly near Whitby, Yorkshire, England
23 Numerus Nerviorum Dictensium 154.8 Concangios (i.e. Concangis) Chester-le-Street, County Durham, England
24 Numerus exploratorum 154.9 Lavatres (i.e. Lavatris) Bowes, County Durham, England
25 Numerus directorum 154.10 Verteris Brough Castle, Cumbria, England
26 Numerus defensorum 154.11 Barboniaco (i.e. Bravoniacum) Kirkby Thore, Cumbria, England
27 Numerus Solensium 154.12 Maglone Old Carlisle, Cumbria, England
28 Numerus Pacensium 154.13 Magis Burrow Walls, Cumbria, England
29 Numerus supervenientium (?) Petueriensium 154.15 Derventione Malton, Yorkshire, England
30 Milites Pacenses 156/8.2 Saletione (i.e. Saletio) Seltz, Alsace, France
31 Milites Menapii 156/8.3 Tabernis (i.e. Tabernae) Rheinzabern, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
32 Milites Anderetiani 156/8.4 Vico Iulio (i.e. Vicus Iulius) Germersheim, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
33 Milites vindicum 156/8.5 Nemetis (i.e. Noviomagus Nemetum) Speyer, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
34 Milites Martenses 156/8.6 Alta Ripa< Altrip, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
35 Milites secundae Flaviae 156/8.7 Vangiones (i.e. Vangionum) unknown, but presumably on the Rhine
36 Milites armigeri 156/8.8 Mogontiaco (i.e. Mogontiacum) Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
37 Milites Bingenses 156/8.9 Bingio (i.e. Bingium) Bingen am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
38 Milites balistarii 156/8.10 Bodobrica Boppard, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
39 Milites defensores 156/8.11 Confluentibus (i.e. Confluentes) Koblenz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
40 Milites Acincenses 156/8.12 Antonaco (i.e. Antunnacum) Andernach, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
41 Milites iuniores Italici 156/8.26 Ravennae (i.e. Ravenna) Ravenna, Italy
42 Milites muscularii 156/8.35 Massiliae Graecorum Marseille, France

The following table gives the stations of naval units not already listed above that can be also be presumed to have the equivalent of legionary status by virtue of being commanded by a prefect.

Entry Name / description Reference Notitia station Modern station location
43 Classis I Flavia Augusta 141.30 Sirmi (i.e. Sirmiuma) Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
44 Classis II Flavia 141.31 Graio (i.e. Graium) near Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
45 Classis Histrica 141.32 Mursae (i.e. Mursa) Osijek, Croatia
46 Classis I Pannonica 141.35 Servitii (i.e. Servitium) Gradiska, Bosnia-Herzogovina
47 Classis II Pannonica 141.36 Sisciae (i.e. Siscia) Sisak, Croatia
48 Classis Histrica 143.36 Florentiae (i.e. Florentia) Dunaszekcso, Baranya, Hungary
49 Classis Arlapensis et Maginensis 145.30 Arelape & Comagena Poechlarn & Tulln an der Donau, Austria
50 Classis Lauriacensis 145.31 Lauriacum Lorch, Austria
51 Classis Sambricae 152.3 Quartensi or Hornensi possibly Etaples and Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, France
52 Classis Venetum 156/8.24 Aquileiae (i.e. Aquileia) Aquileia, Udine, Italy
53 Classis Ravennatium 156/8.27 Ravennae (i.e. Ravenna) Ravenna, Italy
54 Classis Comensis 156/8.29 Como (i.e. Comum) Como, Lombardy, Italy
55 Classis Misenatium 156/8.31 Miseno (i.e. Misenum) Miseno, Naples, Italy
56 Classis fluminis Rhodani 156/8.33 Viennae or Arelati Vienne, Isere, France; Arles, Provence, France
57 Classis barcariourum 156/8.34 Ebruduni Sapaudiae (i.e. Eburodunum) Yverdon-les-Bains, Vaud, Switzerland
58 Classis Araricae 156/8.40 Caballoduno (i.e. Cabilonnume) Chalon-sur-Saone, Burgundy, France
59 Classis Anderetianorum 156/8.42 Parisius (i.e. Lutetia Parisorum) Paris, France

Below is a map illustrating the locations of the various units tabulated above - click on it for a much larger version (5700 x 3100 pixels, 3 MB). In some cases it is not exactly clear which legionary station out of several in a province should be counted as the HQ (usually it is the first listed); I have counted bases of the same legion in a different diocese, e.g. that of (V Macedonica in Egypt), as independent and meriting their own HQ.



1. Codex Theodosianus; 12.2.56; available here (last accessed 1 November 2015). Return
2. Codex Theodosianus; 7.20.4; available here (last accessed 1 November 2015). Return
3. Codex Theodosianus; 7.1.18; available here (last accessed 1 November 2015). Return
4. Ingo Maier; "Appendix 4: Numeration of the new edition of the compilation 'notitia dignitatum' (Cnd)"; last accessed 26 October 2015. See also for here for numbering examples. Return


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