This page created 26 June 2015, and last modified: 26 June 2015
Four prefects commanding units of legionary milites are explicitly noted in the Notitia (the numbers beside the names refer to Ingo Maier's numbering scheme):
145.14 Praefectus legionis quartaedecimae geminae militum liburna[rio]rum cohortis partis superiors, under the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensisThe word liburna[rio]rum identifies these units as having a naval character; a liburna being a swift oared warship. A further six prefects command milites that do not include the word legionis or similar in their unit title, but which are nonetheless explicitly established as being legionary by each being listed under a heading entitled legiones:
145.15 Praefectus legionis decimae et quartaedecimae geminatae militum liburna[rio]rum, also under the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis
145.25 Praefectus secundae Italicae militum liburnariorum, also under the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis
145.28 Praefectus legionis primae Noricorum militum liburnariorum cohortis quintae partis superioris, also under the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis.
76.27 Praefectus navium amnicarum et militum ibidem deputatorum, under the Dux Moesiae secundae
78.23 Praefectus militum contra Margum, under the Dux Moesiae primae
78.24 Praefectus militum exploratorum, also under the Dux Moesiae primae
78.25 another Praefectus militum exploratorum, also under the Dux Moesiae primae
78.26 Praefectus militum Vincentiensium, also under the Dux Moesiae primae
78.27 yet another Praefectus militum exploratorum, also under the Dux Moesiae primae.
The first of these units is likewise naval, as the word navium indicates.
In addition, the following 25 prefects are also described as commanding milites but without identification as being legionary or not; these may be assumed to be legionaries, however, as opposed to auxiliaries, because we would expect units of auxiliaries to be commanded by tribunes:
141.29 Praefectus militum Calcariensium, under the Dux Provinciae Pannoniae secundae ripariensis et SaviaeThe identification of such prefects with legionary formations is particularly clear in the case of 143.34, the Praefectus militum secundae adiutricis, since entry 143.33 is a Praefectus legionis secundae adiutricis; indeed, the scribe of the Bodleian copy, manuscript O, himself replaced militum with legionis (perhaps inadvertently).
143.34 Praefectus militum secundae adiutricis, under the Dux Provinciae Valeriae ripensis
147.8 Praefectus militum Ursariensium, under the Dux Raetiae primae et secundae
151.3 Praefectus militum Carronentium, under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.4 Praefectus militum Maurorum Benetorum, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.5 Praefectus militum Maurorum Osismiacorum, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.6 Praefectus militum superventorum, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.7 Praefectus militum Martensium, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.8 Praefectus militum primae Flaviae, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.9 another Praefectus militum Ursariensium, but under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.10 Praefectus militum Dalmatarum, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
151.11 Praefectus militum Grannonensium, also under the Dux tractus Armoricani et Nervicani
156/8.2 Praefectus militum Pacensium, under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.3 Praefectus militum Menapiorum, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.4 Praefectus militum Anderetianorum, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.5 Praefectus militum vindicum, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.6 another Praefectus militum Martensium, but under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.7 Praefectus militum secundae Flaviae, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.8 Praefectus militum armigerorum, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.9 Praefectus militum Bingensium, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.10 Praefectus militum balistariorum, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.11 Praefectus militum defensorum, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.12 Praefectus militum Acincensium, also under the Dux Mogontiacensis
156/8.26 Praefectus militum iuniorum Italicorum, under the Magister Peditum, but not part of his Italian command
156/8.35 Praefectus militum musculariorum, also under the Magister Peditum, but stationed in Gaul.
Further, the following two limitanei units are not described as being either legionary or auxiliary, nor have their officers identified by rank or similar:
139.13 Milites fortenses, under the Dux Provinciae Tripolitanaebut the evidence firmly suggests they are legionary, because a) their names are typically legionary, and b) their entries are surrounded by units that are explicitly described as being commanded by officers who are praepositi ("commanders"), and these other units are identified only by having a location listed, as opposed to both a name and a location like the two units of milites do.
139.14 Milites munifices, also under the Dux Provinciae Tripolitanae,
Finally, there is also one unit listed under a section heading entitled auxiliaries, but which is nonetheless commanded by a prefect, the
80.18 Praefectus militum exploratorum, under the Dux Daciae ripensis.This unit has likely been slipped one position higher in the roster of the Dux Daciae ripensis than it should be, and should probably be in the legionary list, following line 80.19, which is a heading saying Item legiones (item 80.20 is the Praefectus legionis quartae Flaviae). See here for units of milites in the Notitia that are more firmly identified as being auxiliary.
The word milites broadly means "solidiers" in Latin, and finds its way into the English language in, e.g., "miltary"; later, in medieval Latin, it came to connote a well-born soldier; what in English we would call a "knight", and thus also be well-borne (on a horse) as well as well-born. However in Roman times it had no such connotation; indeed, in the Notitia, all the units styled milites are clearly infantry units (or naval infantry).
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