|C-in-C - Reg Kn (F) @ 31 AP||1|
|Sub-general - Reg Kn (F) @ 31 AP, or as phalangites, Reg Pk (O) @ 24 AP||0-1|
|Sub-general - as phalangites, Reg Pk (O) @ 24 AP||0-1|
|Satrapal horse - Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP or Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP||0-3|
|Replace satrapal horse with Greek mercenaries - all Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP or all Reg Kn (I) @ 10 AP||0-2|
|Replace satrapal horse with Macedonian xystophoroi - Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP||0-1|
|Macedonian Phalangites - Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP||0-8|
|Persian or other archers and slingers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP||2-4|
|Bolt-throwers - Reg Art (O) @ 8 AP||0-2|
|Stone-throwers - Reg Art (S) @ 10 AP||0-2|
|Siege towers - Reg WW (S) @ 14 AP||0-1|
|Camp defences - TF @ 1 AP||0-24|
|All except Krateros before 321 BC:|
|Greek or Karian mercenaries - up to 1/4 Reg Sp (O) @ 5 AP, rest Reg Ax (O) @ 4 AP or Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP||20-42|
|Thracian mercenaries - Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP||0-8|
|Only Neoptolemos, Leonnatos or Krateros:|
|Extra Macedonian phalangites - Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP||23-48|
|Satrapal light horse - Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP||0-3|
|Extra Macedonian xystophoroi - Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP||0-2|
|Pisidians - up to 1/6 Irr Bd (F) @ 5 AP, rest Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP||20-30|
|Only Alketas or Attalos:|
|Pantodapoi - Reg Pk (I) @ 3 AP||0-24|
|Upgrade Pantodapoi as Hypaspists- Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP||0-1/3|
|Penteres or Hexeres - Reg Gal (S) @ 4 AP [Art (O), any Reg infantry]||0-4|
|Tetreres or Trieres - Reg Gal (O) @ 3 AP [Any infantry]||0-4|
|Transports - Irr Shp (I) @ 2 AP [Any]||0-8|
|Only Antigonos before 320 BC or his subordinates after 318 BC:|
|Replace Greek mercenaries with local troops - up to 8 as Karian Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP, otherwise 0-1/4 Irr Bd (F) @ 5 AP, rest Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Sp (O) @ 4 AP||1/4-3/4|
|Paphlagonian horse - Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP||0-3|
|Kappadokian allies - List: Ariarathid Kappadokian (Bk 2)|
|Only Asander from 315 BC to 313 BC BC:|
|Regrade sub-general as mercenary - Reg Sp (I) @ 24 AP or Reg Cv (O) @ 28 AP||0-1|
|Downgrade sub-general to ally-general - Reg Kn (F) @ 21 AP or Reg Pk (O) @ 14 AP||0-1|
|Karians - Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP||0-12|
|Tetreres or Trieres - Reg Gal (O) @ 3 AP [Any infantry]||0-4|
|Only if invading through steep hills, the enemy has PF, or a naval landing party:|
|Re-arm Macedonian Phalangites as Reg Ax (O) @ 14 AP if ally-general, @ 24 AP if sub-general, @ 4 AP otherwise||Any|
This list covers the armies of those early Hellenistic Successors who, after Alexander's death in 323 BC, were mainly based in Asia to the west of Babylon, but excluding Antigonos from 320 BC, Eumenes and Ptolemy, who all have their own separate lists. It therefore covers the armies of Alketas, Arrhidaios, Attalos, Krateros, Leonnatos and Neoptolemos. All of these had been eliminated by 318 BC. After then it covers the armies of Antigonos' subordinates based in the same area, until the battle of Ipsos, and also Asander, satrap of Karia, after he had sided against Antigonos, and his associates Prepelaos and Eupolemos. The list also covers the army of Antigonos himself from 333 BC until 321 BC when he assumed control of the remnants of the Asian portion of the Royal Macedonian army. Unless Art (S) deployed behind PF, each element of Art (S) or WWg (S) is replaced by two elements of Irr Hd (O) pioneers and labourers if the enemy has no PF. Kappadokian allies may not be used with any Pk, or more than 24 elements of Greek and Karian mercenaries and 'local troops'. Battles against any 4th century Macedonian, Successor or Mercenary Greek list count as civil wars.
Aggression: The current 3 is suitable, as these men waged lots of aggressive wars; the only defensive one being Alketas when attacked by Antigonos.
Terrain: The current list's selection is fine.
List scale: These armies were all (when figures are mentioned) between 8200 and just over 22000 men, and thus fit in nicely with the normal list scale of 1:256.
Generals: Important generals fought mounted, and despite the small numbers of troops involved, usually split their mounted forces into two wings leading to the risk of the generals being surrounded and killed by more numerous enemy cavalry- as indeed happened to Leonnatos, Neoptolemos and Krateros!
Cavalry: The minimum number recorded is 200 (Eupolemos, a general of Asander), while the maximum is Leonnatos' 'more than 2000'. Numbers are accordingly very restricted. A mix of Macedonians and foreigners is certain; to get over 2000 horsemen, Leonnatos is likely to have included local Paphlagonians in his army.
Macedonian phalangites: Each lesser general seems to have had a small core of Macedonian foot: Attalos' numbers are unknown, but he presumably had some, since he is recorded collecting some of the remnants of Perdikkas' army together; Arrhidaios had 1000 Macedonian foot, which is probably a typical number, and although Alketas is not recorded as having any, he did have some 'Hypaspists', probably derived from Perdikkas' army, which I assume to be equivalent (see the Eumenid list). Neoptolemos, Krateros and Leonnatos had far larger numbers of Macedonian foot available: 10000 in the case of Krateros, and over 10000 in the case of Leonnatos. Antigonos does not seem to have had any Macedonian foot given to him by Alexander, although he may possibly have recieved some of reinforcements sent out from Macedonia. Accordingly, such troops are not compulsory.
Persian and other slingers and archers: Arrhidaios had 500 and Krateros had 1000 Persian slingers and archers, these numbers are likely typical of all these armies, although other local troops might well substitute for Persians.
Camp defences: Were used by Macedonian armies, but seemingly not all the time. A fortified camp is directly attested for Asander's general Eupolemos.
Greek and Karian mercenaries: Except for Krateros' initial force, all the Successors' armies included large contingents of mercenaries - over 10000 in Arrhidaios' case. Antigonos' local generals likely included mecenaries too, but probably had many local troops (Ptolemaios/Polemaios' force in 314 BC certainly did so, and epigraphic sources indicate this was normal practice). Most of these mercenaries would be Greeks, but Karians are recorded, these would be especially likely as hoplites, Sp (O).
Thracians: given the numbers employed by Alexander, many are likely to have found there way into service in most of these armies; additional men could have been hired from amongst the Bithynians.
Pisidians: Alketas' army included 6000 Pisidians who stuck with him even when defeated. Pisidians are known to have used the drepanon (war-sickle) that their Karian and Lykian neighbours employed, and so a portion are allowed to be graded as Bd (F) by analogy with their Lykian equivalents.
Pantodapoi phalangites: See my comments in the Eumenid list for grading these troops as (I). These were a feature of the Royal army, portions of which were commanded by Alketas and Attalos. It is likely their armies included Pantodapoi; certainly Alketas' phalanx was unable to withstand Antigonos' (admittedly much larger) Macedonian phalanx.
Naval: Attalos was the admiral of the Royal fleet based in Phoenicia (hence the compulsory WW and large numbers of ships allowed); after gathering remnants of the royal army together he launched an unsuccessful attack on Rhodes with some 10000 men. None of the others had a fleet, but see below for Asander.
Artillery and towers: Although only Arrhidaios is noted as actually using it in a situation in which a field battle could have happened - if Antigonos had reached Kyzikos in time while Arrhidaois was besieging it, it is likely that all these armies would have the resources to make use of siege equipment. Certainly there would be little point in invading Rhodes without it.
Local troops: These could be Karians (as regular hoplites), Lykians (drepanon-wielding Bd (F), hoplites, or javelinmen) or various other hillmen, or Ionic Greeks (hoplites). Anson hypothesizes that Antigonos initially allied with the Kappadokians in his post-Issos campaign; hence the Kappadokian allies, but also the limited size of Antigonos' forces in this case.
Asander: As satrap of Karia, he would no doubt been able to recuit Karians; he was supplied with 10000 mercenaries by Ptolemy under the command of the Athenian Myrmidon hence the provision for a separate mercenary general. The option for an ally general is to cover Kassander's general Prepelaos since Diodoros describes both he and Asander being in charge of "Kassander's" Karian expedition. Although Asander seemingly did not have a fleet, Kassander did, and Prepelaos must have come by sea. Indeed, Antigonos defeated 36 "Pydnaean" ships which must surely have come from Macedonia via Karia. There is no record of them participating in a land battle - but we have only one record of a land battle involving Asander's forces, so this is hardly conclusive.
This page last modified 24 October 2003