|C-in-C - Reg Kn (F) @ 31||1|
|Sub-general - Reg Kn (F) @ 31 AP||0-1|
|Sub-general - Reg Pk (O) @ 24 AP||0-1|
|Companions - Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP||2-6|
|Prodromoi - Reg LH (O) @ 5 AP||0-3|
|Archers - Reg Ps (O) @ 2 AP||1-4|
|Footguards - Reg Pk (S) @ 5 AP||0-8|
|Phalangites - Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP||8-48|
|Slingers - Reg Ps (O) @ 2||0-2|
|Camp defences - TF @ 1 AP||0-24|
|Only before 357 BC:|
|Downgrade Phalangites to unconverted levies - Irr Ax (0) @ 3||Any|
|Only from 357 BC to 323 BC:|
|Thessalian allies: List Thessalian Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2)|
|Only after 356 BC:|
|Thracian or other light horse - Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP||0-3|
|Agrianian, Thracian or other javelinmen - Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP||0-6|
|Other Thracian and Balkan foot - Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP||0-16|
|Greek mercenary foot - up to 1/3 Reg Sp (O) @ 5 AP, rest Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP or Reg Ax (O) @ 4 AP||4-20|
|Trieres - Reg Gal (O) @ 3 AP [Ps (O)]||0-1|
|Only after 354 BC:|
|Bolt-shooters - Reg Art (O) @ 8 AP||0-3|
|Only from 352 BC to 329 BC:|
|Regrade Kn Sub-general as Reg Cv (O) @ 28 AP||0*-1|
|Thessalian cavalry - up to 1/2 Reg LH (O) @ 5 AP, rest Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP or Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP||3*-6|
|Thessalian hoplites - Irr Sp (O) @ 4 AP||0*-16|
|Thessalian javelinmen - Irr Ps (I) @ 1 AP||0-1 per Sp (O)|
|Thessalian 'peltasts' - Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP or Reg Ax (O) @ 4 AP||0*-16|
|Only after 340 BC:|
|Triaconters - Irr Bts (O) @ 2 AP [Ps (O)]||0-2|
|Stone-throwers - Reg Art (S) @ 10 AP||0-2|
|Boiotian allies: List Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2)||0-18|
|Only after 338 BC:|
|Greek mercenary cavalry - Reg Cv (I) @ 6 AP or Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP or Reg Kn (I) @ 10 AP||0-2|
|Only Antipatros after 334 BC:|
|Peloponnesian allies: List Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2)||Up to 2 contingents|
|Only after 324 BC:|
|Phoenician and other galleys - up to half as hexeres or penteres - Reg Gal (S) @ 4 AP [any Reg foot, Art (O)], the rest as trieres or tetreres - Reg Gal (O) @ 3 AP [any Reg foot]||0-6|
|Only Antipatros from 322 to 321 BC BC:|
|Replace Companions with Paphlagonians or similar - Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP||1-2|
Replace all Thracian and Balkan Ax with ex-Leonnatid phalangites -|
up to 1/2 as Pantodapoi Reg Pk (I) @ 3 AP, rest as Macedonians, Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP
|Asian archers and slingers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP||0-2|
|Only Antipatros after 321 BC BC:|
|Elephants - Irr El (O) @ 16 AP||0-5|
|Only if invading through steep hills, the enemy has PF, or a naval landing party:|
|Re-arm Footguards as all Reg Ax (S) @ 5 AP or all Reg Sp (S) @ 7 AP||Any|
|Re-arm Phalangites as Reg Ax (O) @ 4 AP||Any|
This list covers Macedonian armies from the reforms of Philip II until the death of the regent Antipatros in 319 BC, except those lead by Alexander after crossing into Asia in 334 BC which are covered by seprate lists. It is uncertain when the Hypaspists were first so called, and the name of Pezetairoi extended to cover the mass of the foot, hence they are referred to as Footguards and Phalangites respectively in this list. Footguards must all be in the C-in-C's command and may only be used in the C-in-C is the king. The C-in-C may always dismount as a Footguards element. Items marked * apply only if any so marked are used; they may not be used with Thessalian allies. Unless deployed behind PF, each element of Art (S) is replaced by two elements of Irr Hd (O) pioneers and labourers if the enemy has no PF.
List dates: This current list starts in 355 BC which seems unacceptaby late. Philip ascended the throne in 359 BC, and according to Diodoros he instituted his reforms at the start of his reign. Indeed, some scholars believe he started his reforms while his brother was still king. The course of the battle in 358 BC against the Illyrians would make more sense if his foot were at least as good as the opposing Illyrians rather than significantly poorer - especially as Philip fought on foot amongst them, and it is hard to imagine Philip intervening so successfully in Thessaly in 357 BC or Thrace in 356 BC with his army still untrained. Alexander's enlarged army of 334 BC, after it had joined up with the army already in Asia, is covered by the Alexandrian Macedonian list. I have continued Antipatros' list down to his death in 319 - the current list gives him a separate list from 320 for no good reason that I can see - other than all of the Successors currently get a list starting in 320 BC!
List scale: Using the normal scale of 1:256 gives armies in the usual 200 - 600 AP range, except in the later stages of the Lamian war, after Leonnnatos' and Krateros' forces had joined up with Antipatros after Leonnatos' death, when the army's strength was trebled from around less than 15000 to 40000 men. To fight such later battles at true scale, all list minima and maxima must therefore be doubled. Krateros' and Antipatros' forces split up again when the invaded Asia, and when Antipatros received the Royal army remnants at Triparadeisos, he immediately gave 70 elephants, 8500 Macedonian foot and 1000 (?) Macedonian horse to Antigonos so that his army was not then as large as might be imagined; similarly the armies commande by Polykles and Polyperchon is his absence would not have been so huge.
Generals: Commanders usually fought with their Companions, except Philip routinely fought dismounted with his footguards. Accordingly a C-in-C may always dismount. I have not allowed the option of purchasing Philip as a foot figure, since he was normally mounted as a matter of course - the provision of an infantry only option implies he didn't have the capability to fight mounted in some circumstances, which was clearly not the case. The option for a pike sub-general represents a lower-ranking commander in charge of the army's centre. This would be particularly appropriate for Antipatros' later enlarged army. The option for a Cv (O) sub-general represents a general like Parmenio leading the Thessalians.
Companions: The strength of the Macedonian horse in the battle in 359 BC against the Illyrians is recorded as being 600 strong. They were later expanded, and no doubt included Greeks from an early date (despite statements from some scholars that they were purely Macedonian until late in Alexander's reign), since the contemporay Theopompus describes the Companions as including many Greeks, in his time they were 800 strong. Alexander had 8 squadrons in 334 BC, giving a maximum of 8 elements including generals, but some of these would almost certainly have already been in Asia, and this many are unlikely to have ever fought together in Europe (Antipatros' later army was said to have been denuded of Macedonian horse by constant drafts to Alexander's army in Asia).
Prodromoi: When these were founded is totally unknown - the pre-reform army quite possibly had its own light horse. Although 4 squadrons of these existed by 334 BC, it is virtually certain at least one was in the Asian army before Alexander crossed the Hellespont, so the maximum number is reduced to 3 elements. It is unlikely that there were 4 squadrons before 336 BC or so when the Asian army was campaigning, since even in 338 BC Philip had only 2000 horse in total available for Chaironeia, which would be counting both Prodromoi and Companions (and probably Thessalians too).
Archers: These were seemingly 500 strong in Alexander's army at Gaugamela (he also had Cretans, etc. to boost their number), and later seemingly reinforced - Alexander used a total of 2000 archers and Agrianians in Thrace in 335 BC, possibly implying 1000 of each. There may have been 500 Macedonian archers present in the army in Asia in 336 BC as later Parmenio takes 2500 Macedonian foot on a side expedition through the lands the Asian expedition had campaigned in, and so are likely to have been soldiers familiar with the area - since a phalanx regiment was 2000 strong, the remaining 500 men are likely to have been the only other Macedonian infantry type: archers. Because of this I have made them compulsory.
Footguards: These were probably 2000 strong like the other regiments of the phalanx, the Hypaspists at Pelion are described as in a 'wedge' formation 120 deep, which fits a 16-strong file. They are not compulsory as armies were frequently not commanded by the King. When they were fielded, they were however always formed up next to him if he fought mounted, or surrounded him if he fought on foot; they must accordingly be in his command. The contemporary Theopomopus still refers to the guards as Pezetairoi in the 340s; they seem to have been formed by Alexanderr II between 370 BC and 368 BC.
Phalangites: They were probably organised in battalions of 2000 men. Alexander's army had 12000 it seems, of which 2000 were probably already in Asia, Antipatros was left with 12000 foot of which an unknown proportion were phalangites. In 323 BC he reportedly had 13000 Macedonian foot (and just 600 horse) - I take this to mean 12000 pike and 1000 others such as archers and the like. His army in 322 BC had at its peak 3000 archers and slingers, 5000 horse and 40000 heavy foot (no doubt including mercenary peltasts and hoplites as well as phalangites) of which 12000 were probably his own phalangites, 10000 were Krateros' Macedonians and an unknown number were from Leonnatos. The minimum is just 8 elements to simulate the 336 BC army in Asia which probably had just a single regiment (2000 men), but many times more mercenaries.
Slingers: (non-Persian) Slingers are recorded both in seiges and occasionally in open battle (eg. by Arrian against the Triballians in 335 BC). Since they are not mentioned separately in Diodoros' troops list, I have assumed they were provided from within the ranks of other units on these occasions. They may have been Rhodians from amongst the Greek mercenaries, but may equally have been Macedonians - many Macedonian sling bullets have been found at Olynthos, which Philip beseiged.
Camp defences: These do not seem to have been universal but were sometimes employed, especially if a pitched battle was to be expected. The fighting outside Thebes in 335 BC would be best simulated by the Thebans having field TF in my opinion.
Early untrained troops: the option for Irr Ax (O) before 357 BC is because it is unlikely Philip could transform his army overnight, yet was constantly fighting early on and needed every man possible. I grade them (O) both because morale was so much better under Philip (the man with the common touch, even deigning to fight on foot alongside them), and also because the more autonomous (and probably more warlike) highlanders would have likely been the last to be trained; the Macedonian bronze pelta was probably introduced between 413 BC and 400 BC which would make them more suited for hand to hand combat than those who recorded by Thukydides in the 420s. It is possible that the distinction between Asthetairoi and Pezetairoi amongst the phalangites derived from their area of recruitment - it is perhaps significant that it is asthetairoi that are called upon to work in mountainous regions in Asia and thus are likely to have been recruited from the highlands. I also note that Asthetairoi are mentioned more often as Alexander's popularity decreased with Philip's old veterans. I would posit that Alexander associated himself more with the highlanders as time went on than with the lowlanders that comprised the core of Philip's kingdom. One reason to believe that Philip7s reforms were not completed in a single year is in the battle against Bardyllis' Illyrians in 358 BC, Philip formed his army up in the oblique manner according to Frontinus. Oblique formations were used when either one side was inferior in numbered and feared outflanking or when one side had some troops that were significantly inferior to the enemy. Since Philip was not outnumbered on this occassion (the infantry were matched, and he had slightly more cavalry), one must conclude that some of his foot were significantly inferior to those of the Illyrians. This would hardly fit the new pike formations, so seems to imply that not all were yet pikemen.
Thessalian allies: Philip first interevened in a civil war in Thessaly in 357 BC, hence the allowance of Thessalian allies from this date. (Thessalians fought both for and against him in the war against Onomarchos' Phokians). At some stage from 352 BC to 344 BC at the latest, Philip became constitutional leader of the Thessalians, and according to Theopompus divided the country into 4 administrative districts. Thessalians may thus be fielded as integral troops rather than as allies. However the Thessalians were more touchy under Alexander - they thought about barring his passage south after Philip's death (until he outmanoeuvered them and confirmed him as their leader in the same position Philip held), and during the initial phase of the Lamian war, they deserted Antipatros for the Greek cause. They thus need not be subjects, and can't be used after 323 BC. Alexander had 1800 of their cavalry, and 2000 of their horse fought against Leonnatos. Foot are certainly more than a possible option (although never directly attested); Thessaly had 'innumerable' numbers of peltasts according to Xenophon, as well as the more normal hoplites and their servants.
Thracian and Paionian Prodromoi, etc.: Alexander had recruited 900 for his Asian campaign - the number is unlikely to have reached this figure before then however, since Alexander had only by defeating the Illyrians and Thracians in 335 BC protected his allied Paionian and Thracian tribes sufficiently as to allow their men to serve him safely. Such troops are only allowed after 356 BC, when Philip first intervened in Thrace.
Agrianians etc.: Alexander seemingly had only 500 Agrianians at the start of his Asian campaign - and possibly more Thracians; but he had 2000 Agrianians and archers all-told a year before in Thrace, perhaps 1000 of each.
Other Balkan foot: Alexander had 7000 such troops at his crossing; some more may have already been in Asia, but again, numbers are unlikely to have been this great before then. See Thracian prodromoi above. Lowlanders (Triballians, Odrysians) figured prominently, despite the mountain tribes bordering on Macedonia.
Greek mercenaries: I have allowed some to be graded as hoplites - note the employment of the Achaians in the front line at Gaugamela unlike the others for instance. Prior to Philip's secural of the Thracian gold mines in 356 BC he didn't have the finances to avoid mercenaries, after this he was able to hire large numbers, and were a normal part of the army as Demosthenes attests (and hence compulsory). Their numbers could be very considerable - Alexander took 5000 with him to Asia, and there were probably another 5000 or so already there given the Asian army there was some 10000 strong. While earlier 4th century peltasts behave like Ps (S), Alexander never used his Greek mercenaries in this capacity, instead relying on Balkan troops. They are accordingly graded as Sp (I) - Iphikratean-style 'peltasts'.
Artillery: In 355 BC Philip was defeated by a Phokian artillery ambush, and gathered his own force of machines. Although stone-throwers were characterised as 'Macedonian', there is no evidence for their use in the field, unlike bolt-shoters - most notably against the Illyrians in 335 BC. Even in sieges, stone-throwers are not recorded as being used against Perinthus in 340 BC, where the Macedonian boltshooters were used to good effect: presumably they were invented after this time. They were certainly in use by 334 BC when Arrian records Alexander using them against Halikarnassos.
Naval: By 340 BC, Philip was building dockyards and naval vessels. They were small however, a penteconter is mentioned under Alexander, but most would apear to be smaller still - the boats that tried to force a landing in the Thracian campaign of 335 BC failed because their numbers were few (hence only two elements) and they carried only a weak force (hence Ps landing parties, not Ax - and we find archers being their typical crewmen under Alexander). However, Polyainos (4.4.21) mentions 4 swift trieres in 353 BC, so a single Gal (O) is allowed from early on. From 32 BC Antipater had use of the Macedonian' (ie. mostly Phoenician) fleet; 110 trieres accompanying his army south during the Lamian war.
Peloponnesian allies: Many states were quite enthusiastic supporters of Macedon (Philip was a guarentee against the Spartans) although they failed to link up for the Chaironeia campaign. Antipatros managed to field an army allegedly 40000 strong against the Spartans in 331 BC: a force this large could only have been possible with considerable military support from many Greek states.
Boiotian allies: Orchomenans and others are reported sacking Thebes in 335 BC in conjunction with Alexander - numbers are limited since Alexander had force marched suddenly, so his Greek allies wouldn't have had much of a chance to collect a large force together even if they had the capability to do so. Philip collected allies from this area for his Chaironeia campaign and according to Diodoros awaited their arrival before marching to the battle.
Greek mercenary cavalry: These are unlikely to have been employed in numbers until after the 'League of Corinth' helped send the army to Asia in 336 BC.
Paphlagonian horse: Although Antipatros' army had up to 5000 horse at one stage, relatively few were Macedonians. Leonnatos had brought 1500 from Paphlagonia - of which most would likely have been Paphlagonians. Accordingly I replace 1-2 elements of Companions (500-1000 men at 1:512 scale) with Paphlagonians.
Asiatic archers and slingers: Krateros brought 1000 Persian archers and slingers with him from Asia when he joined Antipatros in addition to his 10000 phalangites and 1500 horse.
Ex-Leonnatid pikemen: It is unknown what proportion of Leonnatos' pikemen were pantodapoi, but I suspect that none were, since Leonnatos was not associated with the Perdikkan faction that inherited the royal army (and therefore most of the Persian pikemen), and he was killed before there was time to train others up effectively.
Re-arming of Macedonian pikemen: This is recorded at the seige of Halikarnossos, and quite likely applied at other seiges too. There is controversy other whether the foot shown on the 'Alexander sarcophagus' can be equated to Alexander's Hypaspists. Troops probably rearmed whenever on shipboard too - Demetrios the besieger is recorded wielding spear and javelins rather than a pike when on board his flagship in 307 BC. Troops may have also left their pikes with the baggage when marching in difficult terrain - the Macedonians fought 'at a distance' when ambushed by Onomarchos' troops in 355 BC, presumably with their traditional javelins.
Elephants: Alexander had at least 200 elephants that found their way into Perdikkas' royal army. Some were put out of action in his attck of Ptolemaic Egypt, but enough survived for Antiptros to immediately give 70 to Antigonos (and are therefore not counted in this list), and at least 65 to have still been around for Polyperchon to use.
This page last modified 26 October, 2002.