Late Republican Roman 132 BC - 25 BC

Warm. Ag. 3. WW, Rv, H(S), H(G), O, V, RGo, M, Rd, BUA.
Nominal list scale: 1 element equals 500 men (twice normal scale).

C-in-C - Reg Cv (O) @ 28 AP, or Reg Bd (O) @ 27 AP, or Reg Bd (S) @ 29 AP 1
Sub-general - Reg Bd (O) @ 27 AP, or Reg Cv (O) @ 28 AP 0-1
Sub-general - Reg Bd (O) @ 27 AP, or Reg Cv (O) @ 28 AP 0-1 per 18 Reg Bd (O)
Replace sub-general with ally-general - Reg Cv (O) @ 18 AP 0-1
Raw or Galatian legionaries - Reg Bd (I) @ 5 AP 12-96
Upgrade raw legionaries as seasoned legionaries - Reg Bd (O) @ 7 AP 0-48
Cretan or other archers - Reg Ps (O) @ 2 AP or Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP 0-2
Balaeric or other slingers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP 0-2
Bolt-shooters - Reg Art (O) @ 8 AP 0-1 per 6 Reg Bd (O)
Stone-throwers - Reg Art (S) @ 10 AP 0-2
Siege towers - Reg WWg (S) @ 14 AP 0-2
Ditch and rampart for camp(s) - TF @ 1 AP 12-36
Field fortifications - TF @ 2 AP 0-48
Dispatch vessels - Reg Bts (F) @ 2 AP 0-1
Quinqueremes - Reg Gal (S) @ 4 AP [Reg Bd] 0-1
Triremes and Quadriremes - Reg Gal (O) @ 4 AP [Reg Bd, Ps (O)] 0-2
Biremes - Reg Gal (F) @ 4 AP [Reg Bd, Ps (O)] 0-2
Horse transports - Irr Shp (I) @ 2 AP [Cv] 0-1
Boats - Irr Bts (O) @ 2 AP or Irr Bts (I) @ 1 AP, or transports - Irr Shp (I) @ 2 AP [Ps, Reg Bd] 0-10

Only in Africa:
African elephants - Irr El (I) @ 14 AP 0-1
Auxiliary horse - up to 1/2 Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP, rest Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP 0-10
Auxiliary archers and slingers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP 0-6
Other auxiliary foot - up to 1/3 as Spanish scutarii, Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP, rest Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP or Irr Ax (I) @ 2 AP 0-12
Numidian or Moorish allies: List Numidian or Early Moorish (Bk 2)

Only in Asia:
Auxiliary horse - up to 1/2 Irr LH (F) @ 4 AP or Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP, rest Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP 0-10
Auxiliary archers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 or Irr Bw (I) @ 3 AP or Irr Bw (O) @ 4 AP 0-10
Other auxiliary foot - 0-1/3 Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP, rest Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP or Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP 0-10
From 132 BC to 127 BC: Pontic and Kappadokian allies: List Kappadokian (Bk 2)
From 88 BC to 75 BC: Bithynian allies: List Bithynian (Bk 2)
From 64 BC to 47 BC: Nomadic Arab allies: List Pre-Islamic Arab (Bk 2) 0-10
From 62 BC to 38 BC: Jewish allies: List Late Judaean (Bk 2)
From 53 BC to 36 BC: Armenian allies: List Early Armenian and Gordyene (Bk 2)
From 35 BC to 33 BC: Median allies: List Parthian (Bk 2)

Only in Spain:
Spanish auxiliary horse - up to 1/2 Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP, rest Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP 0-10
Replace Bd with Spanish auxiliary cohorts - Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP if caetrati, Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP if scutarii 0-2/3
Balaeric slingers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP 0-4
Regrade ally-general with Spanish bodyguard as Reg Ps (S) @ 23 AP, Reg Ax (S) @ 25 AP or Reg LH (O) @ 25 AP 0-1
Only from 47 BC to 45 BC - Moorish allies:
- - - Ally-general - Irr LH (O) @ 10 AP **1
- - - Moorish legionaries - Reg Bd (I) @ 5 AP 5**-11
- - - Other Moors - Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP, Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP or Irr Ax (I) @ 2 AP 0**-3

Only in Italy:
Gladiators - Irr Bd (O) @ 5 AP 0-4
Replace Bd (O) with Gallic auxiliary foot - all Irr Wb (O) @ 3 AP or all Irr Bd (I) @ 4 AP 0-18
Other auxiliary foot - Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP, Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP 0-4
Auxiliary horse - Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP 0-10

Only in Europe other than in Italy:
Auxiliary horse - up to 1/2 Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP, rest Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP 0-10
Auxiliary foot - up to 1/3 Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP, rest Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP or Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP 0-12
Only after 31 BC - Getic allies: List Dacian (Bk 2)

Only in Greece or Asia:
Regrade auxiliary foot as Hellenistic thureophoroi - Reg Ax (O) @ 4 AP if euzonoi, otherwise as Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP Any

Only before 104 BC:
Rearm Reg Bd (O) as spear-armed triarii - Reg Sp (S) @ 7 AP 0-1/7
Rearm Reg Bd (I) as spear-armed triarii - Reg Sp (O) @ 5 AP 0-1/7

Only before 79 BC:
Regrade Reg Bd as velites - Reg Ps (S) @ 3 AP 0-1/3
Upgrade auxiliary Cv to Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP as Italians 0-6
Labourers - Irr Hd (O) @ 1 AP 0-4

Only from 104 BC:
Upgrade seasoned legionaries as hardened veterans - Reg Bd (S) @ 9 AP 0-1/3
German cavalry - Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP 0-1

Only from 79 BC:
Regrade Reg Bd as antesignani - Reg Ps (S) @ 3 AP or Reg Ax (S) @ 5 AP 0-1/8
Armed servants - Irr Hd (O) @ 1 AP 0-4

Only Caesar from 59 BC to 44 BC:
German cavalry - Irr Cv (O) @ 7 AP 0-2
German footmen - Irr Ps (S) @ 2 AP 1 per German Cv
Armed rowers - Irr Ps (O) @ 2 AP or Irr Ax (I) @ 2 AP 0-1 per Gal

Only Pompey from 66 BC to 48 BC:
Upgrade transports with towers to Irr Shp (X) @ 6 AP [Reg Bd] 0-2
Dinghies - Irr Bts (I) @ 1 AP [Ps, Ax, Reg Bd] 12*-64

Only Pompey in Greece in 48 BC:
Syrian horse archers - Irr LH (F) @ 4 AP 0-1
Archers - Irr Bw (I) @ 3 AP 0-10

Only Pompey from 66 BC to 48 BC, Caesar from 59 BC , or any from 44 BC:
Extra auxiliary horse graded according to the geographical regions above 0-1 per 8 Reg Bd (O)

This list covers Roman armies from after the Numantian campaign, which saw the last major use of Roman cavalry, until the reforms of Octavian (Augustus) which saw the incorporation of the auxiliaries into the regular structure of the army. Only one ally-general may be used, whether foreign or Roman, except that both Jewish and Arab allies may be used together. A Cv C-in-C or Roman ally-general may always dismount as Bd (O). Legionary Bd of different grades may not provide rear support to each other, nor gladiators to legionaries and vice versa. Gladiators may not be used with Gallic auxiliary foot. German footmen Ps (S) may support German Cv. Spanish caetrati Ps (S) may support Spanish Cv. Antesignani Ps (S) may support any Cv. Except in Spain, at least half the army's elements other than naval or external allies must be regular. Unless Art (S) deployed behind PF, each element of Art (S) or WWg (S) is replaced by two elements of Irr Hd (O) pioneers and labourers if the enemy has no PF. If there are no PF anywhere on the battlefield, each element of Shp (X) is replaced by the element of Shp (I) it was upgraded from. Jewish allied contingents need not include any irregular foot. Numidian allied contingents may include elephants, and if they do so, must include imitation legionaries. The minimum marked * applies only if any dinghies are used. Items marked ** apply only if a Moorish ally is used in Spain. A Moorish ally-general in Spain may command up to 5 elements of Spanish auxiliary cohorts in addition to the rest of his normal contingent. At least as many elements of Velite Ps (S) must be used as Triarii Sp. Labourers must be deployed in contact with field fortifications. Armed servants must be deployed within camp fortifications. For the purposes of this list, Egypt counts as in Asia, not Africa.


List dates: The current list starts in 105 BC, with Marius' reforms (104 BC). Marius finally abolished the legal property qualification requirement for serving (107 BC), but in fact the property requirements had been falling for a long time, and were often disregarded in any case. The process was continued further after Marius' reforms too; according to Appian freedmen (ie. former slaves) were being enrolled by the time of the Social war in 90 BC. I take the start of the list to be after the Numantine campaign, which was the last time regular Roman cavalry saw active service as part the legionary framework due to their abysmal performance there (Italian/militia cavalry saw service in the civil wars of the first century BC, and Romans serving as equites are recorded as serving in the Jugurthine wars, but I assume these last are so few as to be subsumed into generals' elements). Numantia was also the main factor causing property qualifications to be dispensed with, such was the difficulty in finding recruits after this war.

List scale: Armies of this era were quite large, and the usual list scale has had to be doubled to accommodate the average force at the "usual" AP range. To fight battles at true scale, all list minima and maxima must therefore be doubled. The minimum sized force represented by this list is therefore two (understrength) legions. The list does not accommodate the massive 'paired' armies of 43 BC and 42 BC. These should be modelled as two full armies fighting side by side.

Generals: Important generals almost always fought mounted, although they could dismount in order to rally demoralised troops etc.; Lucullus at Tigranocerta is a notable exception, and bodyguard units on foot are occasionally mentioned. Subordinates were much more likely to fight on foot at the head of the legionaries than commanding cavalry than C-in-Cs. Large armies could have four generals, usually a centre and two wings with a C-in-C in reserve, such as both sides at Pharsalus. Although battlefield desertions are recorded in the early civil wars in Appian (eg. Civil Wars, 1.87), these seem to be troops surrendering rather than commands switching sides, since such troops threw away their standards when the deserted.

Legionaries: Roman legionaries when newly levied usually did not perform at all well, and are thus graded Bd (I). Bd (O) should not be compulsory since some armies had no seasoned troops, and armies with many veterans were very rare indeed. Most large armies comprised less than 50% seasoned troops; smaller armies could equally well be all experienced, or all raw troops. Galatians are not counted as allies, since when used they were under direct control of Roman generals, and were legionaries unaccompanied (apparently) by untrained Galatian warriors. The (S) grading for truly experienced veterans reflects the contemporary estimates of their abilities much better than a grading of (O) does. Such units were both scarce and necessarily combat depleted, hence the limited numbers available; the omission of Bd (S) generals oter than a C-in-C is deliberate. Such troops were not available until after Marius' reforms, since men couldn't serve continuously together for long enough prior to this.

Cretan archers, etc: A few such psiloi could be found serving in most theatres. Greater numbers were to be found in Spain and Africa than in Gaul or Italy, and where occasionally distributed throughout the legions to operate in close support of the cohorts.

Auxiliary horse: most were "heavy" rather than light, hence the proportion limits, and their numbers were usually not as great as the current list allows, except in armies from Caesar's time onwards; the greatest number recorded before is 6000 serving under Sulla in 83 BC. I have not listed any nationalities - since they are too diverse to catalogue, other than to stop every army taking Spanish horse when such troops were not used (in any significant - ie. at least one-element) numbers outside Spain. Before the Social war, Italian allied horse still had to serve, and according to Appian, were organic to their legions; they are accordingly graded as regular. After the Social war, the remaining Italians became Roman citizens, and thereafter Italian cavalry were raised only as ad hoc levies. The few Roman equites attested serving after Numantia can be taken to be serving in the elements of mounted generals; if you disagree, substitue Italians instead.

Auxiliary archers: Eastern archers could form up in tighter formations than the psiloi classification models, hence the option for Bw (I) - eg Pompey's men at Pharsalus, who instead of skirmishing in front of Caesar's "fourth line" were instead cut down where they stood. Some from such places as Nabataea were somewhat better equipped for close combat, being armoured, and they can be graded Bw (O).

Other auxiliaries: these could be Cilicians, Ligurians, Spaniards, etc. Although such troops could be organised into cohorts, I do not think they deserve regular status, with the possible exception of Greeks and Macedonians such as those that served Sulla, or other troops from Hellenistic states, since such troops were only used on an ad hoc basis, and since they are noted as being "unaccustomed to carrying heavy loads", at least for the Spaniards, they preseumably were not trained for route marching, and therefore are unlikely to have been trained in many other aspects as well. Any such that were are in any case probably better modelled as if Reg Bd (I) than Reg Ax (S) and can be taken from the allowance of legionaries.

Gallic foot: these are recorded in use by both sides in the Social war. One contingent with the Roman side in 90 BC is described as being nearly 10000 strong, another with the Marsians in 89 BC as comprising the centre of their battle line. Such Gauls, having been under Roman governship for some time are possibly better classified as Bd rather than Wb; but their continued "irregular" behaviour is exampled by their continuing issuance of challenges and fright upon having their champion defeated (Appian, Civil Wars 1.50). There is no reason to classify any Southern Gauls as Wb (F); the only ones who fought from bad terrain were the northern Belgae; others like the Boii and Helvetii fought in close formation as described by both Livy and Caesar.

Bolt-shooters: I have tied their number to the number of (experienced) legionaries available rather than allowing a small force to have a huge number of pieces, I assume that any one legion would have no more than in under the empire - 1 per century, approximately 1 element per 6 Bd. They were invariably deployed behind TF, sometimes to shoot overhead of the troops in front, although the rules do not currently allow for this.

Siege equipment: Stone-throwers and seige towers are not recorded as being used in open battle, but were certainly used in many sieges, so the option for their use against PF is given.

Fortifications: The present list allows far too few. Entire valleys and ridges were routinely fortified under energetic commanders, and even lax generals still built impressive camps. Concentric rings of fortifications could be used - eg Dio 36.54.3.

Dispatch vessels: these are mentioned in the fighting in Alexandria.

Quinqueremes: the largest vessels that are mentioned fighting in conjunction with land forces, eg. at Alexandria, where they, plus the quadriremes were just 10 strong - just one element given the list's scale.

Triremes and Quadriremes: more numerous than the larger vessels, their fighting crews were not as the list says 'overwhelmingly of legionaries', at least when the main fighting was on land (as opposed to purely sea battles like Actium): eg. Caesar records 'great numbers of archers' serving in his fleet at Alexandria; given the small size of his fleet, there would not have been room for many other sorts of fighting crews.

Biremes: more numerous still - eg. Caesar had 24 smaller vessels at Alexandria, mostly undecked, compared to ten 4s and 5s, and a certain Octavius (not the famous one) is recorded as having lost a 5 and two 3s compared to eight biremes in a minor action off Sicily.

Boats and transports: Impressed civilian vessels were the usual means of transporting troops - Casear had 10 cohorts embarked this way at Alexandria, plus a few cavalry and picked psiloi, with the whole lot escorted by warships.

Triarii: I have left these optional before 104 BC, since the property qualifications had already been driven down so much that it seems that some of the richer men that would have previously served as triarii might not have served at all, and also because it is unknown when the long spear was done away with. It may have been in Marius' time, but it may have been earlier, since Polybios' description of the legion is the last time the hasta (the long spear) is attested in use with the infantry. I have downgraded triarii of a raw legion to (O), since they could not possibly deserve (S) status; but not all the way down to (I), since they would have included a higher percentage of re-enlisted men than the other lines.

Velites: Despite Marius' reforms, velites are still attested in Sulla's army at Orchomenos, indicating that his reforms either didn't effect other armies for quite some time, his reforms were not as closely tied to equipment changes as is usually supposed, or both. Sekunda implies that while velites may have disappeared from Roman legions with Marius' reforms, or even before, they lingered on in allied legions (which would then imply they disappeared finally at the end of the Social war, when the remaining Italians became Roman citizens). I extend the date down to 80 BC, when Sulla campaigned against the Etruscans and gave them citizenship. Sekunda notes that equipment was bring distributed at public expense to the entire (Roman) levy in 123 BC, and it might be that this was when Roman-enrolled legions started to cease having any velite component.

Labourers: Sulla's army used labourers to dig entrenchments at Orchomenos, and as they got involved in the fighting while away from the camp, need to be represented as something other than Bg. In other armies, the legionaries typically carried out this work. One commander having been defeated by Mithradates freed and armed the slaves in his camp to help defend the camp from attack the next day; as they still had the worse of the fighting, they should probably be graded as Hd too.

Germans: Only available after the anti-German campaigns of Marius, their numbers were very few in any armies except Caesar's, who is recorded as having a guard of 900 such men in Spain, possibly in addition to others. Caesar's Germans were usually accompanied by supporting picked footmen. These need not be double-based however, since this would complicate their transport by naval elements, as was done in Alexandria.

Armed rowers: Caesar used armed rowers to defend his camp in one African battle, and also in the fighting in Alexandria. On this occassion, they are described as throwing javelins effectively from the mole, or shooting slings, so I have thought it better to grade them as Ps or Ax rather than Hd (O).

Ship towers: Pompey used these defending Brundisium; they could well have been used in unrecorded sieges as well.

Dinghies: Pompey once embarked over 60 cohorts on dinghies to outflank Caesar's position.

Antesignani: Athough recorded much earlier, though apparently undifferentiated from normal legionaries, these men by the time of Caesar seemed to have been especially used for tasks where mobility was called for - seizing advanced positions and even supporting cavalry in the manner of his Germans. They accordingly can be graded Ps (S) as well as Ax (S). I assume at most one cohort's worth from every legion, plus a little leeway. It seems that such men took over the role of the former velites.

Gladiators: A feature of several civil wars, these troops were feared by newly levied legionaries, but were not the equal of experienced troops, and the grading of Irr Bd (O) thus seems quite accurate. Quite large numbers could be employed.

Elephants: These are allowed even when a Numidian allied contingent brings its own, since Juba, whose total force amounted to 120 beasts, gave 30 to Scipio, which were not returned but remained under Scipio's control even when Juba later rejoined the army with his own contingent of 30 elephants; Scipio's were deployed on one wing, Juba's on the other.

Spaniards: Except for Caesar, who used only caetrati, Spaniards were typically a mixture of scutarii and caetrati cohorts, and could comprise the majority of even very large armies in Spain. For instance, Afranius and Petreius had 5 legions compared to 80 Spanish cohorts - although it seems that since the Spanish cohorts only formed a third line to their legions' two lines, most of them were apparently unsuitable for the line of battle and therefore likely caetrati. Petreius had a bodyguard of caetrati which may or may not have been horsemen; some caetrati, especially from Lusitania, were armoured despite carrying a small shield and so qualify as Ax rather than Ps.

Moors: Bogus brought a legion across to Spain in 47 BC, where he proved a treacherous ally. I allow him a few non-legionary troops, though these are not mentioned, on the off-chance they may have been present but unworthy of mention. Bogus fought more successfully on Caesar's side in 45 BC, but it is not clear what troops he had with him; I assume the same as before. The involvement of P. Sittius with Bogus in Africa is best simulated by allowing a mecenary Roman general in the Moorish list, as is Sertorius' involvement in a Moorish civil war, since Sertorius brought only 3000 men out from Spain with him.

Dacians: According to Dio (51.24-26), Roles, a 'Getic' king, and his forces aided Crassus, the governor of Macedonia who was campaigning in Dacia.

Nomads: These are extended to 47 BC since they seemed to have served independently of the Jews aiding Mithridates, and are described as princely contingents implying both some sort of independent power as well as a resonable sized presence - they should probably be allowed as allies to a Jewish army in 48 BC to 47 BC rather than being part of the Jewish army itself. The size restriction covers the entire range - I can see no justification for allowing any nomadic Arab contingent to number more than a legion.

Pontic and Kappadokian allies: these are recorded (Justin, 37.1.2) helping against Aristonikos' revolt. Although he himself was captured in 130 BC, the revolt was not finally quelled until 3 years later. It is perhaps doubtful if either contingent would be large enough to qualify as an allied contingent by itself: both can be combined as one, or alternatively, one can be made up of auxiliary troops from the main list.

Median allies: are recorded (Dio Cassius, 49.33, 49.39,40,44) helping Antony and his generals against the Parthians.

Horse archers: Pompey used a few at Pharsalus, and larger numbers are attested in Asia, particularly serving under Cassius.

This page last modified 14 May 2006.

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