Macedonian Successor 319 BC - 294 BC

Warm. Ag 3. WW, Rv, H(S), H(G), Wd, O, V, RGo, Rd, BUA.
Nominal list scale: 1 element equals equals 250 men (normal scale).

C-in-C - Reg Kn (F) @ 31 AP 1
Sub-general - Reg Kn (F) @ 31 AP or as phalangites, Reg Pk (O) @ 24 AP 0-2
Greek mercenary horse - up to half Reg LH (O) @ 5 AP, rest Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP or Reg Kn (I) @ 10 AP 0-2
Macedonian phalangites - Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP
- - - Polyperchon before 316 BC or Kassandros from 317 BC: 16-64
- - - Polyperchon or Kassandros at other times, his sons, Olympias or Eurydike: 8-32
- - - Others: 0-16
Upgrade phalangites as Hypaspists - Reg Pk (S) @ 5 AP 0-1/6
Greek mercenaries - up to 1/4 Reg Sp (O) @ 5 AP, rest Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP 12-36
Regrade Greek mercenary Reg Sp (I) if acting as Euzonoi - Reg Ax (O) @ 4 AP 0-16
Archers and slingers - Reg Ps (O) @ 2 AP 0-4
Javelinmen - Reg Ps (S) @ 3 AP 0-4
Elephants - Irr El (O) @ 16 AP
- - - Polyperchon before 316 BC: 0-4
- - - Olympias in 317 BC: 0-1
- - - Kassandros from 317 BC or his sons: 0-3
Galleys - up to half as hexeres or penteres - Reg Gal (S) @ 4 AP [any Reg foot, Art (O)], the rest as trieres or tetreres - Reg Gal (O) @ 3 AP [any Reg foot] 0-6
Thracians or Illyrians - Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP 0-6
Greek hoplites - Irr Sp (O) @ 4 AP or Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP 0-4
Bolt-throwers - Reg Art (O) @ 8 AP 0-2
Stone-throwers - Reg Art (S) @ 10 AP 0-2
Seige towers - Reg WWg (S) @ 14 AP 0-2
Camp defences - TF @ 1 AP 0-24
Epeirot allies - List: Epeirot (not yet written; approximate with Illyrian, Bk 1)

Only Polyperchon, Eurydike, Olympias or Kassandros:
Macedonian xystophoroi - Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP 0-3

Only Polyperchon before 316 BC or Kassandros after 317 BC:
Thessalian cavalry - all Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP or all Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP 0-4
Athenian or miscellaneous Greek allies - List: Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2) 0-24

Only Lykiskos in 314 BC:
Akarnanian allies - List: Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2) 0-24

Only Ptolemaios from 313 BC to 309 BC:
Eretrian allies - List: Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2) 0-20
Boiotian allies - List: Later Hoplite Greek (Bk 2) 0-20

Only Polyperchon in 310 BC:
Aitolian allies - List: Hellenistic Greek (Bk 2)

Only Kassandros in 310 BC:
Paionian allies - List: Paionian (Bk 1)

Only if invading through steep hills, the enemy has PF, or a naval landing party:
Re-arm Macedonian Phalangites as Reg Ax (S) @ 5 AP if Hypaspists, as Reg Ax (O) @ 24 AP if a general or @ 4 AP otherwise Any

Special rules:

If the enemy has no PF, each element of WWg (S) and, unless deployed behind PF, Art (S), is replaced by two elements of Irr Hd (O) pioneers and labourers.
This list covers Macedonian armies from the death of the regent Antipatros until Demetrios' assumption of the Kingdom of Macedon. Armies covered include those of Polyperchon, Antipatros' nominated successor as regent; Kassandros, Antipatros' eldest son; Queen Olympias, Alexander the Great's mother; Queen Eurydike, wife of Alexander's half-brother; subordinates of Kassandros holding independent commands such as Lykiskos and Eupolemos, and also his sons' armies after his death in 298 BC. It also covers the Greece-based army of P(t)olemaios, Antigonos' general; other Antigonid generals in Greece are covered by the mercenary Greek list. Except by P(t)olemaios, only one allied contingent may be used. P(t)olemaios' Boiotian allied contingent is allowed its full complement of mounted troops. Greek allied contingents may include TF for use as a separate camp. Epeirot allies serving Olympias do so as part of the the CinC's command, rather than counting as a normal allied contingent. This does not apply to Epeirot contingents serving other leaders. Kassandrid "allies" in a Lysimachid army in 302 BC or 301 BC may use options restricted to Kassandros despite him not being personally present.


Aggression: The current Macedonian Early Successor list's 3 is quite suitable, in that wars were mostly offensive, the sole exceptions being when invaded by other Successor armies, or rebellious mercenary armies, which are also rated 3 or 4.

Terrain: The current list's selection is fine.

List scale: Excluding allies, these armies were typically 10 or 20 thousand strong, and thus fit in nicely with the normal list scale of 1:250.

Generals: Important generals seemed to have fought mounted like the other Successors, although details are scanty. While Princess Kynna is said by Polyainos to have not only commanded her forces, but to have fought in the ranks in several battles, it is not apparent that any of the conflicts covered would be large enough to count as DBM-style battles: for instance her death at the hands of Alketas' men sounds more like a small skirmish than a pitched battle.

Cavalry: The minimum number recorded is 200 (ie. a single element - presumably the C-in-C's), the most is 2000; numbers are accordingly very restricted. Kassandros gave Polyperchon 500 Thessalian horse after their detente in 309 BC; as the Thessalians had been able to field 2000 cavalry by themselves in the Lamian war, they were presumably not keen on serving their conquerers. However, the factional nature of Thessaly meant that some troops could always be found to serve one side against another there: even in the Lamian war, not all the Thessalians opposed the Macedonians. Greek mercenary cavalry was also likely available, albeit in small numbers, and more Macedonian xystophoroi would have been available to the wielders of royal power than regular generals. It is possible that Tarantine mercenaries would have been available to Macedon at this time, given Macedonian proximity and involvement with Epeiros which was linked with Tarantum, and it is possible some native Macedonians may have still served as mounted prodromoi, hence the limited provision for LH (depictions of apparently unarmoured Kassandrid horsemen are known), some scepticism is advised however.

Macedonian phalangites: large numbers were only available to those who wielded royal power; the maximum number recorded is Polyperchon's 'over 20000' but this probably includes all his infantry, not just those who were Macedonian pikemen. Most of these soon deserted to Kassandros' side; Eurydike's entire army deserted to Olympias and Polyperchon. As these desertions were not on the field of battle, they are not simulated by ally-generals.

Hypaspists: Hypaspists in a typical guardsmen capacity are mentioned in an annecdote in Polyainos concerning Kassandros. Interestingly, the date is before he is king.

Greek mercenaries: Reg Sp (O) represent 'genuine' hoplites, while Sp (I) represent Iphikratean-style 'peltasts': troops that fought in the main phalanx and should therefore more properly be called 'hoplites'. These may also be regraded as Ax (O): Antigonos is recorded as selecting some of his 'peltasts' to accompany psiloi in mountainous terrain, and the most likely way of reconciling them being called euzonoi ('lightened') is to assume they have swapped their long spear for javelins, as Alexander's pikemen are recorded doing at Halikarnossos (happily, this also allows for people who disagree with my interpretation to use their current figures); however these 'peltasts' may alternatively have been Macedonian pikemen using their javelins. Such troops were probably used by all the Successors in similar situations.

Slingers and archers: the scant sources do not mention them directly, except in seiges; they could be either mercenaries or Macedonians. The large numbers presently allowed, and indeed required - a third of all the mercenaries, seems rediculous.

Javelinmen: again, not directly mentioned in the scant sources, but they were used before and likely were still so employed, especially given Kassandros' known friendlyness with the Paionians. If such troops were used, they would likely have been permanently employed, and thus deserving regular status. I can see no justification for the large numbers allowed, let alone required, in the present list.

Thracians or Illyrians: Thracians are not noted as serving, but the possibilty remains strong that they did, and Illyrians are certainly attested, at least as allies, and a mercenary presence is quite likely too

Greek hoplites: These represent very minor contingents gathered from cities currently under Macedonian control; the larger contingents must be represented as allied contingents.

Elephants: Following Antipatros' death, Polyperchon as the nominated regent gained control of 65 of these as part of the royal army, which he used to unsuccessfuly attack Megaloplis. Kassandros gained control of most of them, with Olympias getting hold of the rest. Hers starved to death in the siege in which she was finally captured.

Galleys: Trieres are still the type most often refered to in the sources (possibly anachonistically however), although larger Phoenician-built vessels were no doubt also present. 30 Athenian tetreres are recorded aiding Kassandros' men in Eretria in 313 BC, these are probably best simulated by an Athenian allied contingent. I have not included boats and raft such as frequently used by Kassandros, since this was used to transport his entire army, including elephants, rather than limited contingents.

Seige equipment: Polyperchon employed mobile wooden towers against Megalopolis in 318 BC, as had Alexander in Asia, and their usage was improveded by other Successors, most notably by Demetrios 'the Besieger'.

Camp defences: a frequent feature of Macedonian warfare, but seemingly not used all the time.

Epeirot allies: Epirus was wracked by civil wars at this time, many of them either caused by or inspired by the Macedonians, and Epeirot allies frequently served alongside Macedonian forces. Olympias, an Epeirot princess, drew much of her military strength from her homeland.

Greek allies: Greek allied contingents were generally quite limited in size, none seemingly being larger than 5000 men, hence the restriction in numbers, with the exception of the Aitolian league, which could field considerably more men. The Boiotian League contingent that aided Ptolemaios reputedly included 1300 cavalry as compared to only 2200 infantry.

Paionian allies: I have include these as allies to Kassandros, rather than as Kassandrid allies to the Paionians, since Kassandros apparently brought his army in person, and it would therefore probably have dwarfed the size of the Paionian forces.

This page last modified 31 May 2006.

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