The only details given about the Southron Kingdoms (Harad means 'South') relate to that at the end of 3A; I have assumed those in other times to be similar. The Haradrim seem to have been cast as 'middle-easterners' partcularly in their swarthy complexions and black hair (TT, p335).
Agression is rated as 2, since while the Haradrim were often invaded and even sometimes conquered by Gondor (3A1050 to 3A1432), the Haradrim retaliated in kind, leading raids as far north as the Isen in Eriador (RotK, p430).
Climate is rated as Dry - even South Gondor bordering Near Harad is described as a 'desert land' on the published Middle-Earth map. A WW is allowed, as the great harbour of Umbar, long held by Harad at the time of the battle of Pelennor Fields, was the prime point of contention between them and Gondor. Rv represents rivers such as the Harnen.
Generals are mounted on horses rather than Mumakil as the 'Chieftain' was so mounted at Pelennor Fields. Mumakil are described as elephants, but larger than any of those now living (TT, p335), they had howdahs (TT, p336; RotK, p336), and are accordingly rated as (S). Trappings were scarlet and gold and tusks were banded with gold (TT, p36). Mumakil are optional in alliedontingents because the force that went to Morannon contained none (TT, p315)
Cavalry were numerous (RotK, p143). They are rated as Cv, since they used scimitars as their main weapon, rather than lance or bow (RotK, p135), and graded as (O) since horse armour is not mentioned and they were quickly broken through by the Rohirrim Kn.
Footmen are split between spearmen and archers both by analogy with medieval Arab Islamic states, and because some at least were spearmen (TT, p315), while arrows were used by some men (RotK, p166). They could be dressed in red or scarlet (TT, p335, RotK, p143). Some at least were armoured with scale corselets (TT, p335); if bowmen these are graded (O); while spearmen, even if armoured, are graded as (I), as they were ridden down by Rohirrim Kn (RotK, p143)
Far-Haradrim foot are classed either as Wb on the assumption that 'men like half-trolls' must be somewhat ferocious; they are then graded (O) as then they can move with the other foot - they do not seemed to have advanced further than the others at Pelennor Fields, which they surely would have done if they were (F), given no general to restrain them; otherwise as Bd such as historical pre-Islaic Arabs. Some non-compulsory LH are allowed on the assumption that such a large group of people as the Haradrim would have some skirmishing horsemen; as (O) again since pre-Islamic Arab horsemen are so classified.
Khand and Wainrider allies are allowed after the Haradrim patched up their differences with them, having previously been enemies, and decided to attack Gondor instead (UT, p291, 295). Other Haradrim allies are allowed since the Haradrim are described as 'peoples' plural, rather than singular (UT, p291; p312), and under 'kings' (RotK, p397). Nothing is known of the Far-Haradrim, and I assume they can therefore be related to historical pre-Islamic desert cultures.
The option to upgrade some troops to regular is because the red-clothing may be evidence of uniform organisation as well as clothing; and also because the Hardrim are described as fighting on resolutely at Pelennor Fields since they were 'war-hardened', despite the loss of their general (RotK, p146), which is much more difficult to do with troops graded as irregular. At least half of those graded as regular must be spearmen, since it is the foot who are most often described this way, and of the footmens' weaponry, only spears are attested.
Black Numenoreans were those King's men corrupted by Sauron after his return to Middle-Earth that came to dominate Harad (Sil, p353). They are graded like their contemporaries from Gondor since both came from the same cultural stock with the same traditions. They may not be used after Harad was conquered by Gondor in 3A1050. They are described as leading the Haradrim armies (RotK, p397), hence both the classification of their general as the CinC, and their limited numbers.
Corsairs used both black-sailed dromunds, and also as 'ships of great draught with many oars' (RotK, p144); they are therefore rated as Gal (S). Corsairs were a regular feature of Haradrim forces, hence their numbers availible in allied contingents drawn from this list. I grade their crews as light troops, Ax or Ps, since they did not seem to have ventured far from their ships at Pelargir as close-formation troops might have done so, even in their great numbers; and also because Byzantine marines (for they were the only nation historically to use the large galleys called 'dromunds') are graded as Ax (S). I assume crews of the many smaller boats mentioned would not be fully-armed marines like those of the dromunds.
The banner of the King of Harad at the battle of Pelennor Fields was scarlet with a black serpent (RotK, p135). Other banners were also of red (RotK, p 108; TT, p315).
This page last modified May 1, 2000