Alexandrian Macedonian 334 BC - 329 AD

Warm. Ag 4. WW, Rv, H(S), H(G), Wd, O, V, RGo, Rd, BUA.
Nominal list scale: 1 element equals 500 men (twice normal scale)

C-in-C - Reg Kn (F) @ 31 1
Sub-general - as Thessalians, Reg Cv (O) @ 28 AP or Reg Kn (F) @ 31 AP 1*
Sub-general - Reg Pk (O) @ 24 AP 0-2
Companions - Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP 2-4
Macedonian Prodromoi - Reg LH (O) @ 5 AP 2
Thessalians - all Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP or all Reg Kn (F) @ 11 AP 2*-4
Other Greek allied or mercenary cavalry - Reg Cv (I) @ 6 AP, Reg Cv (O) @ 8 AP or Reg Kn (I) @ 10 AP 1*-3
Thracian and Paionian Prodromoi - Irr LH (O) @ 5 AP 2-3
Agrianians - Reg Ps (S) @ 3 AP 1-2
Archers - Reg Ps (O) @ 2 AP 1-3
Hypaspists - Reg Pk (S) @ 5 AP 4-6
Pezetairoi and Asthetairoi - Reg Pk (O) @ 4 AP 22**-24
Greek mercenary foot - up to 1/4 Reg Sp (O) @ 5 AP, rest Reg Sp (I) @ 4 AP or Reg Ax (O) 4 AP 4*-20
Greek allied foot - Irr Sp (I) @ 3 AP 10*-14
Thracian or other javelimen - Irr Ps (S) @ 3 AP 1*-3
Other Thracian and Balkan foot - Irr Ax (O) @ 3 AP or Irr Ax (S) @ 4 AP 8-16
Slingers - Reg Ps (O) @ 2 0-1
Bolt-shooters - Reg Art (O) @ 8 AP 0-2
Stone-throwers - Reg Art (S) @10 AP 0-2
Siege-towers - Reg WWg (S) @14 AP 0-2
Camp defences - TF @ 1 AP 0-24
Stone-throwers - Reg Art (S) @ 10 AP 0-2
Upgrade Trieres fitted with sea-towers to Irr Shp (X) @ 6 AP [Hypaspists, Asthetairoi] 0-2
Upgrade Trieres fitted with artillery towers to Irr Bts (X) @ 6 AP [Art (S)] 0-2

Only before 330 BC:
Transports - Irr Shp (I) @ 2 AP [Art, Kn C-in-C] 0-3
Trieres - Reg Gal (O) @ 3 AP [Hypaspists, Agrianians, Ps (O), Asthetairoi] 0-12

Only from 332 BC to 331 BC:
Upgrade trieres to penteres - Reg Gal (S) @ 4 AP [Hypaspists] 0-1/3

Only if invading through steep hills, the enemy has PF, or a naval landing party:
Re-arm Hypaspists as Reg Ax (S) @ 5 AP or Reg Sp (S) @ 7 AP Any
Re-arm Pk (O) as Reg Ax (O) @ 24 AP if a general, @ 4 AP otherwise Any

Special rules:

The C-in-C may always dismount as an Hypaspist element. If the enemy has no PF, each element of (X) naval element is replaced by the trieres element it was upgraded from, and each element of WWg (S) and Art (S) is replaced by two elements of Irr Hd (O) pioneers and labourers.
This list covers Alexander the Great's field army from his crossing into Asia until the army's reorganisation at the start of the Skythian expedition. A Thessalian sub-general represents Parmenio when commanding the Thessalians. Minima marked * apply only if he is used. The minimum marked ** is reduced by 4 if he is not used. If any Greek Kn (I) are used, Thessalians must be Kn (F). Hypaspists must be in the C-in-C's command. The C-in-C may always dismount as an Hypaspist element. Naval contingents were provided at first by the 'allied' Greeks, and later by the Cypriots and Phoenicians, but were provided with Macedonian marines when used in conjunction with land forces.


List dates: This list covers only Alexander's main army in Asia until the army was reorganised prior to the Bactrian and Skythian campaign. Philip's army, Alexander's army before he crossed over to Asia, plus the army left behind under the regent Antipater are all covered by the separate Philippic Macedonian list.

List scale: Using a scale of 1:500 gives armies with a maximum of over 600 AP, but the minimim AP value is over 300 AP (but only just over 200 AP without Parmenio). To fight battles at true scale, all list minima and maxima must be doubled.

Generals: Typically, the army was divided into two halves, the right under Alexander, the left under Parmenio. Each half was then further subdivided - Krateros commanding the left of the phalanx and Koinos the right, hence the provision for 4 generals. Parmenio invariably fought with the Thessalians; Krateros and Koionos fought with their pikemen and are thus rated Pk (O). Occasionally Parmenio was sent off on side campaigns, in which case the troops he took with him need not be used. When Alexander himself went off on side campaigns, a more radical troop composition resulted - these expeditions are covered by the separate Alexandrian Expeditionary list. Side expeditions led by other Generals, especially Parmenio are covered by the separate Macedonion Expeditionary list.

Companions: Initially there were 7 line squadrons plus the royal squadron at an establishment strength of 256 and 300 men respectively; another squadron was added before Gaugamela giving 4 elements plus the CinC, but the minimum is only two elements since Parmenio once took some with him on a side expedition. I have removed their rather promiscuous dismounting option - in larger "open" battles in Asia the Companions are recorded as being left unused in the rear in rough terrain rather than dismounting to fight (eg. against the Pisidians); dismounting is however allowed in the Alexandrian Expeditionary list.

Macedonian Prodromoi: 4 squadrons of these at a presumed 256 men per squadron.

Thessalians: There were initially 1800 of these, and at least 200 reinforcements are recorded before Issos.

Other Greek cavalry: Allied and mercenary, just 600 are recorded in Diodoros' crossing list, but it seems likely he has omitted another 600; several batches of reinforcements are recorded bringing the total up to somewhere around 1500.

Thracian and Paionian Prodromoi: 900 strong at the start of the campaign, 500 Thracian reinforcements are recorded before Gaugamela.

Agrianians: Initially half of a one thousand-strong body, reinforcements arrived before Issos, after which they formed up in two bodies.

Archers: Initially half of a one thousand-strong body, mostly Cretans, Macedonians archers are recorded later, and there were 3 bodies of them by the time of Gaugamela, probabaly 500 strong.

Hypaspists: These were probably only 2000 strong at this time rather than 3000 increasing to 4000 as later, but I have allowed 3000 for those that disagree.

Phalangites: Some were called Asthetairoi, some Pezetairoi - the distinction is debated. They were probably 12000 strong at the start of the period, organised in battalions of 2000 men. It is possible that they used their javelins at Issos as they were trapped crossing a mountain range, and Curtius records the foot throwing their weapons. Judging from the actions at Thebes and Halikarnossos, the Hypaspists may have sometimes retained pikes while the main phalanx used javelins.

Greek mercenaries: 5000 strong at the start of the campaign, despite his impoverished finances, they were expanded and reinforced frequently - Alexander always had some on hand so that his Macedonians would be free to perform battle duties, although once they were all sent off with Parmenio. They typically went into the many garrisons Alexander established. I have allowed some to be graded as hoplites - note the employment of the Achaians in the front line at Gaugamela unlike the others.

Allied Greek hoplites: 7000 of these started the campaign, but a few were detached for garrison duties, hence the lowered minimum (eg. the Argives in Sardis). I rate them as Sp (I) since they basically served under compulsion as hostages 'for a domestic or foreign tyrant' as the rules would have it, and always in rear-line positions; as Irr Sp (O) they would be unrealistically enthusiastic. They are still irregular however, since there is no evidence that such troops were trained in anything other than 'keeping a line', and I fail to see why impressing troops under a foreign tyrant should suddenly make them more manoeuvrable on the battlefield. Reg Sp (I) in a Macedonian army are likely to be used reasonably offensively, if not like the Pk (O); Irr Sp (I) are not, and will likely be kept right in the rear which is exactly where they should be.

Balkan javelinmen: Some of the Thracian and other Balkan infantry formed light javelin units and so are rated as Ps (S) rather than Ax.

Other Balkan foot: Initially there were 7000 Thracians and lllyrians, later reinforcements boosted their numbers (though no doubt many went into garrison duties).

Slingers: Slingers are recorded both in seiges and occasionally in open battle (eg. by Curtius (3.9.9) mixed with the archers at Issos). Since they are not mentioned separately in Diodoros' troops lists, I have assumed they were provided from within the ranks of other units on these occasions. They may have been Rhodians from amongst the Greek mercenaries (Curtius records how at Issos each unit had some mercenaries associated with it), but may have been Macedonians - many Macedonian sling bullets have been found at Olynthos, which Philip beseiged quite early on in his career before he could have hired large numbers of mercenaries.

Camp defences: do not seem to have been universal but were sometimes employed, especially if a pitched battle was to be expected.

Naval vessels: Only before 330 BC, as after this date Alexander was campaigning away from the Mediterranean. The royal squadron and the artillery are both recorded as being transported by ship. Trieres were provided by the Greeks, or, after 333 BC, by the Cypriots and Phoenicians, but their marines were Macedonians, plus Agrianians and archers. A good proportion of the Cypriot and Phoenician shipes were the larger penteres.

Seige equipment: This is provided mostly for scenario designers and for completeness. Sea towers and naval artillery towers were both used at Tyre. Contrary to the current list notes, mobile towers were used at seiges.

Re-arming of Macedonian pikemen: This is recorded at the siege of Halikarnossos, and likely applied at other sieges and possibly whenever on ship-board. There is still great controversy whether the foot shown on the 'Alexander sarcophagus' can be equated to Alexander's hypaspists. I believe they represent dismounted Companions , but keep the Sp option for those who disagree.

This page last modified 14 June, 2004

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